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Basic First Aid

First Aid is given to preserve life, prevent the condition from getting worse and to promote recovery.
Dealing with a casualty;-

Use D.R.A.B to make an initial assessment of the casualty.

Danger
Response
Airway
Breathing


Danger
It is important that you not put your own or others life in danger when attending to an incident by controlling any hazards such as traffic, fumes, etc.
  • Proceed with caution
  • Remove any hazards if safe to do so
  • Do not take risks
  • Ensure the scene is safe and no continuing danger
Response
Assess the casualty for their level of consciousness. Give a load clear instruction speaking into both ears of the casualty, such as "Can you hear me?" If no response gently shake the casualties shoulders.

If the casualty is responsive try to find out what is wrong and treat as required.

Airway
If no response from the casualty the airway needs to be opened and maintained. We do this by first checking the mouth for any obstructions and removing as necessary. Place a hand on the casualties forehead and fingers of the other hand under the chin. Gently tilt the had back lifting the chin at the same time.

Breathing
Now the airway has been maintained we check to see if the casualty is breathing. Place your cheek close to the casualties mouth and look for movement in the casualties chest, listen for breathing and feel for breaths on your cheek. Do this for 10 seconds. If you are not sure the casualty is breathing, treat as if they are not.

Contact Emergency Services

  • Arrange for an ambulance to be called (999 or 112). This is best done by someone else but be prepared to make the call yourself if on your own.
  • Inform them that you have a breathing - not breathing patient.
  • If someone else phones, make sure they return so you know that an ambulance has been called.
Breathing Casualty
Carry out a secondary survey checking for signs of injury before placing the casualty in the recovery position. Monitor the airway and breathing through out. Keep the casualty warm and comfortable.

Non Breathing Casualty
Start Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 compressions per minute to 2 rescue breathes. Continue until the patient starts breathing, the emergency services arrive or you become exhausted and unable to continue.

Further Information

Use the A.V.P.U scale to determine the level of consciousness.

Alert
Voice
Pain
Unresponsive


Alert
Is the casualty alert and responsive? I.e. eyes open and able to communicate.

Voice
The casualty may not be fully alert but communicate by only answering or trying to answer simple questions or commands.

Pain
The casualty is able to respond to painful stimuli by opening their eyes, making a sound or movement.

Unresponsive
The casualty is unresponsive to voice and pain stimuli and UNCONSCIOUS.

Reasons for UNCONSCIOUSNESS (FISH SHAPED).
  • Fainting
  • Imbalance of heat
  • Shock
  • Head Injury
  • Stoke
  • Heart Attack
  • Asphyxia
  • Poisoning
  • Epilepsy
  • Diabetes


Tags
First Aid Manual